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Absolutely prolonged and revised, A better half to Metaphysics second Edition features a portion of unique evaluate essays from well known metaphysicians, and the addition of greater than 30 new encyclopedic entries, taking the variety of entries to over three hundred.

  • Includes revisions to latest encyclopedic entries
  • Features greater than 30 all-new "A to Z" entries
  • Offers a piece of in-depth, essays from popular metaphysicians
  • Provides the main entire and up to date reference advisor for college kids and pros alike

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Example text

Well, among other things, it involves being able to think of these organisms as possessing certain characteristic properties, such as furriness and warmbloodedness, and – most importantly for present purposes – as satisfying a certain criterion of identity. We needn’t suppose, however, that a person who grasps the concept of a cat must be able to articulate such a criterion in an explicit form, in line with the general form of a criterion of identity stated earlier. Indeed, it is notoriously difficult – even for philosophers – to formulate clear and uncontroversial criteria of identity for many kinds of things, even when we seem to have a good implicit grasp of such criteria that is manifested in our ability to make confident identity-judgments concerning things of those kinds.

From a personal or practical standpoint, we believe we have free will when we view ourselves as agents capable of influencing the world in various ways through our choices or decisions. When faced with choices or decisions, open alternatives seem to lie before us – a “garden of forking paths” into the future, to use a popular image. We reason and deliberate among these alternatives and choose. We feel (1) it is “up to us” what we choose, and hence how we act; and this means we could have chosen to act otherwise.

Fischer is convinced by Frankfurt-style examples and other considerations that moral responsibility does not require alternative possibilities. But he also argues that freedom does require forking paths into the future, and hence alternative possibilities; and he is convinced by the Consequence Argument that determinism rules out alternative possibilities. The result of these competing considerations is “semi-compatibilism”: moral responsibility is compatible with determinism, but freedom (in the sense that requires alternative possibilities) is not compatible with determinism.

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