By MJ Neale and M Gee (Auth.)

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5 Cavitation erosion A test arrangement that can be used for cavitation erosion tests is shown in Fig. 6. In this arrangement the cavitation is created cyclically by the use of a high-frequency oscillatory drive, commonly using magneto-striction or piezo-electric effects. This causes the test surfaces to approach and recede from each other at high speed. During recession the fluid between the surfaces cavitates, and on approach the cavitation collapses and erodes the surfaces. To achieve these effects hydrodynamically, the specimen dimensions at the contacting surfaces typically need to be at least 10 mm in diameter and flat.

This also includes the same motions as those experienced in service, which can critically affect the results in some applications. For example, in wear tests on materials for replacement hip joints, a simple uni-directional oscillating movement can give much less wear than the practical situation in which the oscillating movement is multi-directional. This arises from the particular wear properties of the plastic materials involved, in which the long chain molecules become aligned with the direction of motion, and if this is unidirectional, it increases the wear resistance.

This can then provide guidance on the selection of tests, which are likely to give valid information on the relative wear performance of various materials in practical applications. The following chapters of this guide review the wear tests that are available in terms of their relevance to practical operating conditions and give guidance on their selection and application. 00 L 10 100 1000 Bore diameter (mm) Fig. 5 I 1 2 Ratio of hardness of the two surfaces Fig. _~ -'--' "13taniumalloys ] 00 - c- Cast bronzes o o Nickel alloys t-o > o ~ Wrought bronzes 10 1 _ > Aluminium alloys rr 9 10-2 10-2 I I 10-1 100 101 Ultimate resilience characteristic in MN/m 2 Fig.

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