By R. Michael

Relocating from the Catholic Church's pagan origins, in the course of the Roman period, center a long time, and Reformation to the current, Robert Michael the following presents a definitive historical past of Catholic antisemitism.

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Additional info for A History of Catholic Antisemitism: The Dark Side of the Church

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Judaism therefore had to be preserved, but in a condition where it could do no “harm” to Christianity, as a corpse in suspended animation. Fourth, by focusing on the Jewish scapegoat and villain as the cause of all the specific historical ills of Europe, the Church could explain away the evidence that contravened its claim that the Kingdom of God had truly arrived with Christ, and it could account for the continued existence of evil in the world. 10 There are indications that in every generation there were Christians friendly toward Jews.

68 In 1234, Pope Gregory IX wrote that “the perfidious Jews . . ”69 This conception of Jews was established in canon law through the Decretals (letters containing papal decisions) of Pope Gregory IX in the same year and was used by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II two years later. As late as 1581, Pope Gregory XIII concluded that the Jews were to be “eternal slaves” since their guilt for murdering Jesus grew deeper with each generation. The Church sanctioned the Catholic princes’ treatment of Jews as property that could be sold, traded, or lent; the only traditional restrictions— which were often violated—were those against mass murder and forced conversion.

Michael and a devil collaborate in damning a Jew, who is portrayed as the first to enter the jaws of hell. 16 The artist disregarded the Jewishness of Jesus, his apostles, and his followers, as well as the Jewishness of his ideas and beliefs, while the Romans were exculpated from any involvement in his death. Only the Jews were seen as responsible. Later, great artists used this subject matter. Hieronymous Bosch (d. 1516) painted The Crucifixion, which shows Jesus en route to Golgotha, his face at peace; he is spiritually transported beyond the frenzied Jewish mob that surrounded him.

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