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The average fiber deviation and also the orientation degree of collagen fibers can be quantified based on the following equations: D(%) = 100 N DA i ⋅∑ and the OD(%) = 100 − D N i=1 90 Advances in Collagen/Hydroxyapatite Composite Materials 21 where, N is the number of fibers; DAi — correspond to deviation angle of each fiber; D (%) correspond to the average deviation of the fibers toward the applied electric field and OD(%) correspond to the orientation degree. Obviously the orientation is difficult to quantify and only a few methods permit this kind of measurements (and usually these are indirect methods); the orientation will be quantify based on the SEM images.
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Bonzani, I. , Gunatillake, P. and Stevens, M. M. 2007 Synthesis of two-component injectable polyurethanes for bone tissue engineering. Biomaterials 28(3):423-433. Chang, M. C. and Tanaka, J. 2002. FT-IR study for hydroxyapatite/collagen nanocomposite cross-linked by glutaraldehyde. Biomaterials 23:4811–4818. Clarke, I. , Green, D. , Delauney, C. and others. 2003. Current Status of Zirconia Used in Total Hip Implants. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 85(Supplement 4):7384. Advances in Collagen/Hydroxyapatite Composite Materials 29 Corces, A.