By Mark Wegman
The interval from the Nineties to the mid-1950s is usually thought of the “golden period” of passenger rail shuttle in America. It was once a time of celebrated locomotives and plush passenger carrier, a time while rail expertise observed its maximum advances and railroads grew to become the nation’s favorite mode of transportation. those glory years come alive in American Passenger Trains and Locomotives Illustrated, 1889–1971. For this quantity, writer and illustrator Mark Wegman has researched unique railroad drawings and every so often even paint chips to render greater than one hundred sixty profiles, entrance and best perspectives, and inside layouts depicting the steam, diesel, and electrical locomotives, in addition to passenger automobiles, of 3 dozen of the nation’s so much celebrated trains of the golden age. Accompanying the author’s drawings are histories of every educate, interval photos, postcards, menus, baggage stickers, classic print advertisements, and special captions. The e-book is a lavishly appointed trip again in time to the bygone heyday of passenger-train travel.
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I am indebted to Roy Church for his help with this calculation. 9. For I 844- 5 I UK engine-mileage was estimated at 429 million (300 million train-miles x I43/IOo), with fuel consumption at 40 lb coke (57 lb coal) per engine-mile. For UK coal output see note 8. 5 million (636m. x I 43/ 100), with coal consumption at 50 lb per engine-mile. 5 million tons [Mitchell and Deane I962, 115]. 5 million tons of pigiron x 7 (cf. note 8). 10. 4 (I855) were derived from Hawke [I970, 48-50, 88-9] (the freight savings were doubled to take account of additional savings).
Indeed many of their 'disastrous' lines were relatively cheap to build. The four most-criticised extensions of Watkin's South Eastern, for example, consumed only 10 per cent ofthe£8 million spent between 1872 and 1898 (Gourvish, 1978: 192 ]. And in England and Wales only a very small proportion about 5 per cent - of the capital spent between I 8 70 and I 900 went into unprofitable new companies. 1 2 By far the greater part of capital additions was devoted to essential improvements to the capacity and standards, including safety, of the main lines, particularly in the crowded urban areas, rather than to unprofitable ventures in sparsely populated districts.
Route-mileage increased by 50 per cent, capital by I 50 per cent, and gross revenue by nearly 200 per cent (Table IV). In fact inland transport was essentially rail transport in the late nineteenth century, although this is not to ignore the important role of road transport, and especially road haulage, as a short-haul feeder [Turnbull, I 979: 124-5]. But there can be no doubt that the contribution of the railways to the economy was much greater than in the mid-I 86os. If Hawke had produced a social saving calculation for I 890, for example, it would have been two or three times greater than for I865, amounting to 25-30 per cent of national income 11 (although note the criticisms of the procedure expressed in chapter 5).