By Loren T. Stuckenbruck

The general public worship of the risen Christ as depicted in John's Apocalypse without delay contradicts the guiding angel's emphasis that simply God can be worshiped (Revelation 19:10; 22:8-9). In Angel Veneration and Christology, Loren Stuckenbruck explores this contradiction in mild of angel veneration in Early Judaism.
Stuckenbruck surveys a wide selection of Jewish traditions regarding angelic worship and discovers proscriptions opposed to sacrificing to angels; prohibitions opposed to making pictures of angels; rejections of the "two powers"; second-century Christian apologetic accusations particularly directed opposed to Jews; and, most significantly, the refusal culture, common in Jewish and Jewish-Christian writings, in which angelic messengers refuse the veneration of the seer and exhort the worship of God alone.
While proof for the perform of angel veneration among Jews of antiquity (Qumran, pseudepigraphal literature, and inscriptions from Asia Minor) doesn't provide the quick history for the worship of Christ, Stuckenbruck demonstrates that the actual fact that safeguards to a monotheistic framework have been issued in any respect throws mild at the Christian perform of worshiping Jesus. the way in which the Apocalypse adapts the refusal culture illuminates Revelation's declarations approximately and depictions of Jesus. notwithstanding the refusal culture itself basically safeguards the worship of God, Stuckenbruck lines how the culture has been cut up in order that the angelophanic parts have been absorbed into the christophany. As Stuckenbruck exhibits, an angelomorphic Christology, shared via the writer of Revelation and its readers, features to maintain the author's monotheistic emphasis in addition to to stress Christ's superiority over the angels―setting the level for the worship of the Lamb in a monotheistic framework that doesn't contradict the angelic directive to worship God by myself.

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Extra info for Angel Veneration and Christology. A Study in Early Judaism and in the Christology of the Apocalypse of John

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Martyn Festschrift (JSNTSS, 24; Sheffield: JSOT, 1989) 69-94. 3 1 32 Though careful to speak of the emergence of Christology in earliest Christian circles as a compromise of monotheism "from the rabbinic perspec­ tive," SEGAL nevertheless sees an analogous development in Judaism during the first century. Aside from Christian circles (which SEGAL subsumes under "Ju­ daism"), however, i t is difficult to determine just where in Judaism SEGAL would posit such tendencies. See Two Powers, pp. 2, 1334-94, esp.

4 8 18 Introduction cept has come to denote generally the devotion to a national or patron god, as opposed to an allegiance toward deities of other nations. Indeed, one ad­ vantage of using the terms "henotheism" and "monolatry" to describe Early Ju­ daism and the Palestinian Jesus Movement is their descriptiveness, "realism," with respect practice. and hence to a possible conflict between religious thought and Either expression calls attention to the possibility that one can sometimes distinguish sharply between religious claims and accommodations in praxis of a person or group (from the perspective of anthropology) or between the religious claims and practices of one Jewish group in contrast with those of another (from the perspective of sociology).

Mohr [Paul Siebeck], 1988); Ithamar GRUENWALD, apocalyptic and Merkavah Mysticism (AGAJU, 14; Leiden: Brill, 1980); From Apocalypticism to Gnosticism. Studies in Apocalypticism, Merkavah Mysticism and Gnosticism (Frankfurt: Lang, 1988); Peter SCHÄFER, "Engel und Menschen in der Hekhalot-Literatur," Kairos 22 (1980) 201-225; "New Testament and Hekhalot Literature: The Journey into Heaven in Paul and in Merkavah Mysticism," JJS 35 (1984) 19-35; and "Tradition and Redaction in Hekhalot Literature," JStJud 14 (1983) 172-81.

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