By National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements

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Extra resources for Liver Cancer Risk from Internally-Deposited Radionuclides: Recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements

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1983). The use of Thorotrast® in vascular imaging, especially cerebral arteriography, gained considerable acceptance because of its excellent contrast properties and its freedom from “immediate” toxic effects (Muth, 1989). However, its late effects ultimately made it one of the most serious causes of iatrogenic disease. , 1976) and 33 34 / 8. , 1979). Long-term exposure to Thorotrast® was found to produce liver cirrhosis, myeloproliferative disorders and liver cancer in some of the patients after a long latent period.

S. M. (1987). “Karyotype instability of Chinese hamster cells during in vivo tumor progression,” Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. 13, 1–10. BASTRUP-MADSEN, P. N. (1971). “Myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia and pancytopenia after Thorotrast injection,” Acta Med. Scand. 189, 355–358. A. (1976). “Thorotrast and tumors of the liver,” pages 83 to 93 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Okuda, K. , Eds. (John Wiley & Sons, New York). H. (1937). “Fortschritte der experimentell Krebsforschung,” Langenbecks Archiv der Klinischen Chirurgie 189, 123–129.

Judging from the Thorotrast® studies, the major risks to the human liver from internal irradiation are malignant liver tumors and liver cirrhosis. , 1989). 1). , 1993). 2 — 75 78 65 18 10 35 Nonirradiated populationsc b Histological tumor type documented in the hospital record. Twenty-two percent indeterminate carcinomas. c Other liver tumor types make up the remaining percent of tumors. a Baxter et al. (1980) 50 17 Mori et al. (1995) van Kaick et al. (1983) 33 23 25 DaMotta et al. (1979) Andersson et al.

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